“A disabled person is anyone who has a physical, mental or sensory impairment, of a stable or progressive nature, that causes difficulty in learning, establishing relationships or obtaining employment and therefore places the person in a situation of social disadvantage or exclusion”. This definition is contained in Law 104/1992, which is the main legal framework for all disability issues in Italy: it guarantees specific rights for people with disabilities and their families, provides assistance, stipulates full integration and the adoption of measures for prevention and functional recovery, and also ensures social, economic and legal protection.
Italian Law 104/1992 guarantees the right of education to disabled persons in every education cycle.
The disabled person integration within University is carried out as follows:
− providing technical equipment and teaching aids to University, signing agreements with specialized centers for pedagogical consultancy, and production of specific teaching material;
− creation of specialized tutoring/mentoring services;
− planning of specific interventions, provided by University, in accordance with both people needs and individual study program;
− assignment of professional specialized interpreters to University in order to facilitate the attendance and learning of deaf students;
− allow a personalized treatment to get the university exams with the subject matter expert agreement and the tutoring/mentoring service support;
− allow the possibility to carry out tests based on the specialized tutoring/mentoring service input;
− appointment of a Rector’s Delegate, for coordination, monitoring and support of all initiatives concerning integration within the university;
− Tutoring/mentoring support can also be provided by “peer to peer advisors”, in other words, people with disabilities who have already faced and solved similar problems to those that need of them for support;
Furthermore, in order to guarantee the right to access and complete Higher Education, the legislative decree n. 68/2012 exempts students with disabilities up to sixty-six percent of registration fees and university contributions.
For more information:
LAW February 5, 1992, n. 104 Framework law for assistance, used social and the rights of disabled people
LAW 28 January 1999, n. 17 Integration and amendment of the framework law 5 February 1992, n. 104, for assistance, social creation and the rights of disabled people
LEGISLATIVE DECREE March 29, 2012, n. 68 Revision of the principle legislation on the right to education
LAW February 5, 1992, n. 104 Framework law for assistance, social integration and the rights of disabled people
LAW 28 January 1999, n. 17 Integration and amendment of the framework law 5 February 1992, n. 104, for assistance, social integration and the rights of disabled people
LEGISLATIVE DECREE March 29, 2012, n. 68 Revision of the legislation on the right to education
DECREE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC 27 April 1978, n. 384 Regulation implementing art. 27 of the law of 30 March 1971, n. 118, in favor of civilian disabled and disabled, in the field of architectural barriers and public transport
Students with disabilities have a partial or total exemption of taxes (based on the percentage of disability). They do not have direct financial support from the Universities or from the Ministry but they can benefit from specific services such as physiotherapy, assistance, personal support in relation to their needs. Additional funds for inclusive mobility are provided by the ERASMUS National Agency and by the Ministry through the Youth Fund in order to encourage international mobility.
In the national regulations (Law 104/1992, Law 17/1999, Legislative Decree 68/2012) there is no explicit mention of mobility, but students participation in all activities must be guaranteed.
In early 2001, within the CRUI (Conference of the Rectors of Italian Universities), the CNUDD (National University Conference for Delegates for Disability) was established. This is an organisation capable of representing the policies and the activities of the Italian universities for disabled students.
Every year, the Ministry grants a contribution to Universities in order to guarantee technical and educational aids to students with disabilities. (L. 17/1999 and Youth Fund)
The Ministry's mobility grants/benefits are awarded to students through Universities who subscribe to the agreements with foreign Universities in order to provide support for disabled students' mobility abroad.
In every University statute in Italy, there is the appointment of a Rector’s Delegate for coordination, monitoring and support of initiatives concerning integration of disabled students within the university.
The student must submit the application (Call for applications right to education) to “Right-to-study” Regional Authority where the University at which he or she is enrolled is located.
Here is an example for 2019/2020 in the Lazio region