The Higher Education Act (Act No. 111/1998 Coll., amended and consolidated, on higher education institutions and on amendment and supplements to some other acts) does not include any definition of a student with a disability. The Section 21 "Other Obligations of Public Higher Education Institutions" only states that a public higher education institution is obliged, among others, to make all possible provisions for ensuring equal opportunities for study at the higher education institution
National guidance on recognising students with a disability is provided in the Financial Rules for Providing Subsidies and Grants to Public Higher Education Institutions by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Rules are being annually updated and they provide a list of categories of students with a disability based on a "functional principle" meaning that the recognising students with a disability is not given by the medical diagnosis but by the practical impact that the disability has on their activities necessary for studies. This diagnosis based on the "functional principle" is conducted before the 1st semester and HEIs are responsible for the recognition procedure.
For more information, you can consult the following document (in Czech): Pravidla pro poskytování příspěvku a dotací 2020.pdf, MŠMT ČR (msmt.cz) 2020 edition in Czech, starting on p. 26
The ministry provides public HEIs with a public grant that includes a grant for increased costs related to studies of students with specific needs (=disabilities), based on the numbers of students with specific needs reported by each HEI.
It is up to each HEI to provide specific support services and it is not organized by the ministry.
For more information (in Czech), you can consult the following pages:
Rules for the provision of contributions and subsidies to public universities for the year 2019 (Annex 3)
Breakdown of the University budget for 2019 (List “11b Ukazatel F – SSP”)
The ministry provides public Higher Education Institutions with a financial contribution on internationalisation (part D of the ministry's grant) and HEIs are free to use it on all sorts of internationalisation activities, including additional mobility grants for inclusive mobility.
Czech Higher Education Institutions receive financial contributions for students with specific needs and based on the nature of the support, it might be transportable abroad as long as those students stay to be students at the given Higher Education Institution.
International students have to apply at the Czech institution of their choice and the institution should provide them with the same services as local students.